Freedom of the Seas, 1609: Grotius and the Emergence of International Law
An exhibit marking the 400th anniversary of Hugo Grotius's Mare Liberum
The Development of the Law of the Sea in the 17th Century: A Bibliography of Modern Scholarship
Compiled by Edward Gordon
Akashi. Kinji. Cornelius van Bynkershoek: His Role in the History of International Law. The Hague: Kluwer, 1998.
Alexandrowicz, C.H. An Introduction to the History of the Law of Nations in the East Indies. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967.
Alexandrowicz, C.H. "Freitas versus Grotius," 35 British Yearbook of International Law 162 (1959).
Allen, E.W. "Freedom of the Seas," 60 American Journal of International Law 814 (1966).
Alsop, J.D. "William Welwood, Anne of Denmark and the Sovereignty of the Sea," 49 Scottish Historical Review 171 (1980).
Amaral, Sylvino Gurgel do. "Le ‘Mare Liberum' et ses adversaries", in Hugo Grotius: Essays on His Life and Works Selected for the Occasion of the Tercentenary of His ‘De Jure Belli ac Pacis' 1625-1925 (A. Lysen ed.; Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1925). [Translated from the Portuguese, where it appeared in the author's Ensaio subre a vide e obras de Hugo de Groot (Grotius) (Rio de Janeiro-Paris, 1903).]
Anand, R.P. Origins and Development of the Law of the Sea: History of International Law Revisited. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1983.
Andrews, Kenneth R. Ships, Money and Politics: Seafaring and Naval Enterprise in the Reign of Charles I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Armitage, David. The Ideological Origins of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Armitage, David, ed. The Free Sea: Hugo Grotius, Translated by Richard Hakluyt; with William Welwood's Critique and Grotius's Reply. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2004.
Blom, Hans W., ed. Property, Piracy and Punishment: Hugo Grotius on War and Booty in De Jure Praedae – Concepts and Contexts. Leiden: Brill, 2009.
Borschberg, Peter. "Grotius, Intra-Asian Trade and the Portuguese Estado da India Problems," in Property, Piracy and Punishment: Hugo Grotius on War and Booty in De Jure Praedae – Concepts and Contexts ( Hans W. Blom, ed.; Leiden: Brill, 2009).
Borschberg, Peter. "The Seizure of the Sta. Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch-Johor Alliance (1602-ca. 1616)," 33 Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 31 (2002).
Braudel, Fernand. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Brett, Annabel. Liberty, Right and Nature: Individual Rights in Latin Scholastic Thought. Cambridge: University Press, 1997. [See pp. 165-204, on Vásquez.]
Brito Vieira, Monica. "Mare liberum vs. Mare clausum: Grotius, Freitas, and Selden's Debate on Dominion over the Seas," 64 Journal of the History of Ideas 361 (2003).
Butler, Geoffrey; & Simon Maccoby. The Development of International Law. London: Longmans, Green 1928. [See esp. pp. 40-60, "The World by Sea".]
Butler, W.E. "Grotius and the Law of the Sea," in Hugo Grotius and International Relations (H. Bull, A. Roberts & B. Kingsbury, eds.; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).
Chatterjee, Hiralal. International Law and Inter-State Relations in Ancient India. Calcutta: Mukhopadhyay, 1958.
Christianson, Paul. Discourse on History, Law, and Governance in the Public Career of John Selden, 1610-1635. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1996.
Clark, G. N. "Grotius's East India Mission to England," 20 Transactions of the Grotius Society 45 (1935).
Clark, G. N., & van Eysinga, W. J. M. "The Colonial Conferences between England and the Netherlands in 1613 and 1615," 15 Bibliotheca Visseriana 15 (1940).
De Pauw, F. E. R., ed. Grotius and the Law of the Sea (P.J. Arthern, transl.). Brussels: Institut de Sociologie, 1965.
Diesselhorst, Malte. "Hugo Grotius and the Freedom of the Seas," 3 Grotiana (N.S.) 11 (1982).
Dumbauld, E. "Grotius on the Law of Prize," 14 Journal of Public Law 370 (1965).
Edmundson, George. Anglo-Dutch Rivalry during the First Half of the Seventeenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911.
Eysinga, William J. M. van. "Quelques Observations au Sujet du Mare Liberum et du De Jure Praedae de Grotius," 9 Grotiana 60 (1942).
Eysinga, William .M. van. "Le 350ieme anniversaire du ‘De jure Praedae commentarius' de Grotius" [French translation of address of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and Letters, March 24, 1956], in Sparso Collect (Leyden 1958), pp. 358-374.
Fenn, Percy Thomas, Jr. The Origin of the Right of Fishery in Territorial Waters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926. [See esp. ch. VIII, "Mare liberum versus Mare clausum."]
Fenn, Percy Thomas, Jr. "Origins of the Theory of Territorial Waters," 20 American Journal of International Law 465 (1926).
Fenn, Percy Thomas, Jr. "Justinian and the Freedom of the Seas," 19 American Journal of International Law 465 (1925).
Fruin, Robert. "An Unpublished Work of Hugo Grotius," 5 Bibliotheca Visseriana 3 (1925). [English translation of a work first published, in Dutch, in 1868.]
Fulton, Thomas Wemyss. The Sovereignty of the Seas: An Historical Account of the Claims of England to the Dominion of the British Seas, and of the Evolution of the Territorial Waters: With Special Reference to the Rights of Fishing and the Naval Salute. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1911.
Gepken-Jager, Ella; Gerard van Solinge, & Levinus Timmerman. VOC 1602-2002: 400 Years of Company Law. Deventer: Kluwer, 2005
Goldwin, R.A. "Locke and the Law of the Sea," 71 Commentary 46 (June 1981).
[Grotius, Hugo]. De jure praedae commentaries. I. Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty. Gwladys L. Williams and Walter H. Zeydel, transl.. II. The Collotype Reproduction of the Original Manuscript on 1604 in the Handwriting of Grotius. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1950.
Grotius, Hugo. "Defense of Chapter V of the Mare Liberum," in 7 Bibliotheca Visseriana 154 (1928). [Originally written between 1613 and 1617.]
Haggenmacher, Peter. "Grotius and Gentili: A Reassessment of Thomas E. Holland's Inaugural Lecture," in Hugo Grotius and International Relations (H. Bull, A. Roberts & B. Kingsbury, eds.; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).
Hakluyt, Richard. The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts. 2 vols. E.G.R.Taylor, ed. London: Hakluyt Society, 1935.
Holk, L.E. van, & C.G. Roeflofsen, eds. Grotius Reader: A Reader for Students of International Law and Legal History. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Instituut, 1983.
Ito, F. "The Thoughts of Hugo Grotius in the Mare Liberum," 18 Japanese Annual of International Law 1 (1974).
Ittersum, Martine van. Profit and Principle: Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies (1595-1615). Boston: Brill, 2006.
Ittersum, Martine van, ed. Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty: Hugo Grotius. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006.
Ittersum, Martine van. "Dating the Manuscript of De Jure Praedae (1604-1608): What Watermarks, Foliation and Quire Divisions Can Tell Us About Hugo Grotius' Development as a Natural Rights and Natural Law Theorist," 35 History of European Ideas 125 (2009).
Ittersum, Martine van. "Mare Liberum in the West Indies? Hugo Grotius and the Case of the Swimming Lion, a Dutch Pirate in the Caribbean at the Turn of the Seventeenth Century," 31:3 Itinerario 59 (2007).
Ittersum, Martine van. "Mare Liberum versus the Propriety of the Seas? The Debate between Hugo Grotius and William Welwood and the Impact on Anglo-Scottish-Dutch Fishing Disputes in the Second Decade of the Seventeenth Century," 10 Edinburgh Law Review 239 (2006).
Kenworthy, J.M., & George Yound. Freedom of the Seas. London: n.d.
Knight, William S.M. "Seraphin de Freitas: Critic of Mare liberum," 11 Transactions of the Grotius Society 1 (1926).
Kwiatkowska, B. "Hugo Grotius and the Freedom of the Seas," in Hugo Grotius: 1583-1983: Maastricht Hugo Grotius Colloquium March 31, 1983 (J.L.M. Elders et al., eds.; Van Gorcum: Assen, 1984).
Landwehr, John. VOC: A Bibliography of Publications Relating to the Dutch East India Company 1602-1800. Utrecht: HGS Publishers, 1991.
Lauterpacht, Hersch. "The Grotian Tradition in International Law," 23 British Yearbook of International Law 1 (1946).
Macrae, L.M. "Customary International Law and the United Nations' Law of the Sea Treaty," 13 California Western International Law Journal 181 (1983).
Meurer, Christian. The Program of the Freedom of the Seas: A Political Study in International Law. Leo J. Frechtenberg, transl. Washington: GPO, 1919.
Molen, G.H.J. van der. Alberico Gentili and the Development of International Law: His Work and Times. Amsterdam: H.J. Paris, 1937. [Later printing: Leyden 1968. See esp. ch. VI, "Questions of International Law."]
O'Connell, D.P. The International Law of the Sea. London: OxfordUniversity Press, 1983.
Oudendijk, J.K. Status and Extent of Adjacent Waters: A Historical Orientation. Leyden: Sijthoff, 1970.
Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the World: Ideologues of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500-1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. [See esp. pp. 56-61 on Vasquez.]
Parks, George Bruner. Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages. New York: American Geographical Society, 1928.
Piggott, Frances. The Freedom of the Seas Historically Treated. Oxford: printed for the Historical Section of the Foreign Office, 1919.
Porras, Ileana M. "Constructing International Law in the East Indian Seas: Property, Sovereignty, Commerce and War in Hugo Grotius' de Iure Praedae - The Law of Prize and Booty, or on How to Distinguish Merchants from Pirates," 31 Brooklyn Journal of International Law 741 (2005-2006).
Potter, Pitman B. The Freedom of the Seas in History, Law, and Politics. New York: Longmans, Green, 1924. [Reprint 2002. See esp. ch. IV, "The Grotius-Selden Controversy."]
Quinn, D.B. "A Hakluyt Chronology," in The Hakluyt Handbook (D.B. Quinn, ed.; 2 vols.; London: Hakluyt Society, 1974).
Rawlinson, H.G. Intercourse between India and the Western World: From the Earliest Times to the Fall of Rome. Cambridge: University Press, 1926.
Roelofsen, C.G. "The Sources of Mare Liberum; the Contested Origins of the Doctrine of the Freedom of the Seas," in International Law and its Sources: Liber Amicorum Maarten Bos (W.P. Heere, ed.; Boston: Kluwer, 1988). [Reprinted in C.G. Roelofsen, Studies in the History of International Law: Practice and Doctrine in Particular with Regard to the Law of Naval Warfare in the Low Countries from circa 1450 Until the Early 17th Century (Utrecht: Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, 1991).]
Roelofsen, C.G. "Grotius and the International Politics of the Seventeenth Century," in Hugo Grotius and International Relations (H. Bull, A. Roberts & B. Kingsbury, eds.; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990). [Reprinted in C.G. Roelofsen, Studies in the History of International Law: Practice and Doctrine in Particular with Regard to the Law of Naval Warfare in the Low Countries from circa 1450 Until the Early 17th Century (Utrecht: Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, 1991).]
Roelofsen, C.G. "Grotius and State Practice of His Day," 10 Grotiana 3-46 (1989). [Reprinted in C.G. Roelofsen, Studies in the History of International Law: Practice and Doctrine in Particular with Regard to the Law of Naval Warfare in the Low Countries from circa 1450 Until the Early 17th Century (Utrecht: Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, 1991).]
Roelofsen, C.G. Review of Anand, Origins and Development of the Law of the Sea, 31 Netherlands International Law Review 117 (1984).
Rogers, F.M. "Hakluyt as Translator," in The Hakluyt Handbook (D.B. Quinn, ed.; 2 vols.; London: Hakluyt Society, 1974).
Steinburg, Philip G. The Social Construction of the Oceans. Cambridge: University Press, 2001. [See esp. pp. 92 et seq.]
Toomer, G. J. John Selden: A Life in Scholarship. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [See vol. 1, ch. 12, "Mare Clausum."]
Trevor-Roper, H. From Counter-Reformation to Glorious Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Vollenhoven, C. The Three Stages in the Evolution of the Law of Nations. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1919.
Vreeland, Hamilton. Hugo Grotius: The Father of the Modern Science of International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1917. [See esp. pp. 39-67.]
Wade, Thomas C. "Introductory Essay: The Freedom of the Sea," in Sir John Boroughs, The Sovereignty of the British Seas (Edinburgh: W. Green & Sons, 1920).
Wilkinson, John. "The First Declaration of the Freedom of the Seas: The Rhodian Sea Laws," appendix to Ch. XIX of the same author's paper, "A Tentative Program for Simulation of Historical ‘Ecology' of the Mediterranean," in The Mediterranean Marine Environment and Development of Region (Malta: Royal University of Malta Press, 1974).
Wilson, Eric. Savage Republic: De Indis of Hugo Grotius, Republicanism and Dutch Hegemony with the Early Modern World Systems (c.1600-1619). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008.
Winstedt, Richard; & P.F. De Josselin De Jong, "Maritime Law of Malacca," 29 (Pt. 3) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Aug. 1956).
Wright, Herbert F. "Some Lesser Known Works of Hugo Grotius," 7 Bibliotheca Visseriana 132 (1928). [Four works are reproduced, of which two are translations: one of Grotius's works on fisheries in his controversy with William Welwood, another a translation of extracts from Grotius's letters concerning international and natural law and fisheries. See esp. "Defense of Chapter V of the Mare Liberum."]
Zemanek, Karl. "Was Hugo Grotius Really in Favour of the Freedom of the Seas?", 1 Journal of the History of International Law 48 (1999).
Ziskind, Jonathan. "International Law and Ancient Sources: Grotius and Selden," 35 Review of Politics 537 (No. 4, 1973).
"Freedom of the Seas, 1609: Grotius and the Emergence of International Law," curated by Edward Gordon and Michael Widener, is on display October 2009 through January 2010 in the Rare Book Exhibition Gallery, Level L2, Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School.