The Library of Congress has a great, step-by-step overview of the legislative process here. The Congressional process includes various activities and actions that are private and not observable by the public - if there is a document that you can’t find, please consult with a librarian to see if it is available. See also:
- Riddick’s Senate Procedure: contemporary precedents and practices of the Senate
- The House Practice: A Guide to the Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the House
- House Rules
- CRS Report on Congressional Lawmaking and Transparency
CALENDARS: collection includes the Calendars of the U.S. House of Representatives and History of Legislation and the Senate Calendar of Business.
MINUTES (1981 - date): The Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States contains the “minutes” of each chamber’s session. It is the official, constitutionally required record of the business of Congress; however, for legislative history, it is usually not as helpful as the Congressional Record.
See also the Maclay’s Journal of Senate Proceedings (1789-1791), since Senate sessions were closed to the public until 1795, his is one of the few accounts of Senate floor activity in the early Congresses. It is available in the Library of Congress’ web collection, A Century of Lawmaking.