Rare Books Blog

José Calvo González
September 15, 2020

“Sostener entre las manos un libro antiguo es como sustentar el tiempo.”
[“An ancient book is like a time machine in your hands.”]
     – José Calvo González

My late friend José Calvo González was not well known in the U.S., but in Portugal, Latin America, and his native Spain he was the leading scholar in the law and literature field. As Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the Universidad de Málaga, he published dozens of books and articles, among them Borges en el espejo de los juristas (2016) and El alma y la ley: Tolstói entre juristas (2010). In addition to publishing, he tirelessly promoted the work of others through collective works such as La cultura literaria del derecho: alianzas transatlánticas (2019), and in his lively blog, Iurisdictio-lex Malacitana.

I take this opportunity to pay tribute to José because of his enthusiastic support for our Rare Book Collection over the years. He was directly responsible for several of my acquisitions of illustrated law. José was a committed bibliophile, and we shared an interest in the illustrated law books that I have pursued for our collection. Indeed, two of my final purchases for the Rare Book Collection are books that José alerted me to. One of these is De iure maritimo & navali (Stockholm, 1651) by Johann Loccenius. This work on comparative maritime law has a lovely added engraved title page, showing Justitia standing in the prow of a sailing ship.

The other book is the two-volume Institutiones romano-hispanae (Valencia, 1788-1789) by Juan Sala Bañuls. It came to my attention when José told me about the first edition of the work, published under the title Vinnius Castigatus, which he owned. He described it to me as an effort to “hispanicize” the commentary on Justinian’s Institutes by the Dutch jurist Arnold Vinnius, a popular textbook that was nevertheless suspect in Catholic Spain because Vinnius was a Protestant. The frontispiece shows Justitia handing the Siete Partidas (the medieval Spanish law code) to the Spanish king and the Institutes to the Roman emperor. José captioned the image, “Con la justicia se afirma el trono” (“Justice affirms the throne”), i.e. that justice is the basis for the monarch’s authority and for law in general. As a visual metaphor for the importance of legal literature, the image has few equals.

José also had an eye for law-related popular and children’s literature. Thanks to him, our Juvenile Jurisprudence Collection has El Juez (“The Judge”), part of the popular Lucky Luke series of comic books by the Belgian cartoonist Morris, in both a Spanish translation and the original French. Other titles José led me to included Les arrêts illustrés (2017) by Astrid Boyer, and a 4-volume set of Les tribunaux comiques by Jules Moinaux (1882-1889).

Although José Calvo’s main work was in law and literature, he made a number of significant contributions to book history. Letra y duelo: imprentas de viudas en Málaga (siglos XVII-XIX), the catalogue of an exhibition he organized in 2009, is an innovative study of the role of women in printing and publishing in early modern Málaga. The catalogue is now available online, thanks to the Ayuntamiento de Málaga. In another exhibition catalogue, El derecho escrito: la cultura del libro e impresos jurídicos en las colecciones privadas malagueñas, siglos XVI-XIX (2005), he studied legal culture of the 16th-19th centuries through the books that local jurists left behind. In addition, he marked the 30th anniversary of his law school at the Universidad de Málaga with a catalogue of their rare book collection, In theatro librorum: fondo antiguo en la Blblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho (2009). All three are gifts to the Law Library from their distinguished author.

In addition to supporting our Rare Book Collection with gifts and guidance, José was a tireless supporter of our public programming, giving wide publicity to our exhibitions and publications through his blog. He took great pleasure in encouraging and promoting the work of others. The Law Library and I are among many, many individuals and institutions who are indebted to him for his enthusiastic support.

José and I were friends for twenty years, yet I never had the pleasure of meeting him in person until his visit to the Law Library exactly one year ago. Along with his friends and my wife, we spent several wonderful hours with the books in our Rare Book Collection. It was a long-awaited and memorable event, one of the highlights of my career. I regret that there won’t be another.

Adiós, hermano.

– MIKE WIDENER, Rare Book Librarian

José Calvo González (seated) with friends in the Paskus-Danziger Rare Book Room, 14 September 2019. Photo courtesy of Raoul Osorio Berardinetti.

José Calvo González (right) with Mike and Emma Widener, 14 September 2019. José was moved by Emma’s story of her daughter Clara’s encounter with Jorge Luis Borges.

No Imprisonment for Debt, 1844
August 6, 2020

The Rare Book Collection’s digital collection in the Law Library’s Scholarship Repository grew by a fifth in July, with the addition of 27 additional digitized works. They include eighteen broadsides from across Europe and North America. They are among the 151 titles freely available as high-quality PDF documents in the Yale Law Special Collections section of the Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository.

A broadside is a large sheet printed on one side, much like a poster. Long ago they were an inexpensive and effective means of disseminating official announcements, news, and popular literature. In the case of law, governments used broadsides to broadcast new laws and regulations. Broadsides from the popular press published accounts of notorious trials, public executions, and commentary (often anonymous) on news events, helping to form public perceptions of the legal system and legal issues.

Since broadsides were designed for display in public places, their survival rate is quite low, making them especially valuable as historical sources. Their rarity is born out by the sample of eighteen broadsides we digitized from our collection. Ten of them are the only known copies, according to searches in the OCLC FirstSearch database and the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog (KVK). Another seven are one of only two known copies.

These broadsides date from as early as 1619 to as late as 1912. They include a dozen documenting trials in Great Britain, North America (including Mexico), and Italy, three from our Italian Statute Collection, and four satires of the legal profession and current events. In the summaries below, clicking on the title will take you to the Scholarship Repository where you can read and download the PDF. You will also find a link to the catalog record in our online catalog, MORRIS. Thanks to my colleagues Cesar Zapata and Yuksel Serindag for their help.

– MIKE WIDENER, Rare Book Librarian


The account of the trial of Jas. Byrne at Dublin, Oct. 28, 1811, charged on the oath of the Bishop of Clogher, with accusing him of an abonimable crime: with an account of the dreadful floggings he underwent. London: Printed and sold by J. Catnach, 2 Monmouth-Court …, [1822]. 46 x 41 cm. The only known copy.

“In 1811, in Dublin, James Byrne accused Percy Jocelyn, Bishop of Clogher (at that time Bishop of Ferns) of making sexual advances towards him. … Jocelyn in turn accused Byrne of extortionary libel. … The proceedings were grossly biased in favor of the Bishop. Byrne was sentenced to public flogging, ‘to be whipped three times’ and imprisoned for two years. It was reported that after the first flogging, where ‘he was bled and tortured until the last spark of life and feeling had nearly become extinct’, he was persuaded to recant his accusation on the promise that the other floggings would not follow. The text on the broadside consists of the prosecution’s statement to the jury and the sentence in the 1811 trial. Following that is the reportage is taken from the Dublin Morning Post in 1822, recounting Byrnes’s ordeal in 1811.”–Robert H. Rubin Books (vendor; quoted with permission).

The trials, confessions, &c. of Miss Blandy for poisoning her own father; John Swann and Miss Jefferies for the murder of her uncle : being the most shocking murders ever known for many ages. London, 1752?. 37 x 25 cm. The only known copy. The murder trials of Mary Blandy, John Swann, and Elizabeth Jeffries were two of the most sensational and widely publicized trials in 18th-century Britain. This crude broadside is a two-for-one.

Caroline, Queen, consort of George IV, King of Great Britain, 1768-1821. The Queen’s letter to the King. London: R. Walwyn, printer, [1820]. 51 x 37 cm. The only known copy. This is one of our items featured in the recent exhibition, “Trial by Media: The Queen Caroline Affair.”

Trial and sentence of Franz Müller for the murder of Mr. Briggs, on the North London Railway. [1864?]. 50 x 38 cm. The only known copy. This murder was the first to take place on a British train, and reflects public anxiety about this new mode of transportation.

Trial and sentence of Joseph Connor for the murder of Mary Brothers, at no. 11, George Street, St. Giles’s, on Monday, March 31st. London: BIRT, printer, 39 Great St. Andrew Street, Seven Dials, [1845]. 51 x 38 cm. One of two known copies.


Lamentos del Sargento Ignacio Jimenez: sentenciado a la ultima pena. [Mexico City?]: Imprenta de Antonio Vanegas Arroy, 1912. 30 x 21 cm. One of two known copies.

Sargent Ignacio Jiménez was accused of murdering his commanding officer. In this broadside he bids farewell to his family and urges others to not follow his bad example. The woodcut is attributed to José Guadalupe Posada, Mexico’s most famous illustrator.

Lines written on the death of Sarah M. Cornell. 1833?. 43 x 20 cm. One of three known copies. Sarah Cornell was a “mill girl” whose body was found hanging from a pole. She was found to have been pregnant, and a suspected suicide became a murder investigation, leading to the arrest of the Rev. Ephraim K. Avery, a Methodist minister of Bristol, Rhode Island. Public outrage greeted Avery’s aquittal, as seen in this broadside.

Important decision in reference to trade marks. Reported for the “Express.” Court of Chancery, New York. J. & P. Coats v. Shepard and others, of the firm of Hollbrook, Nelson, & Co., New York. September 1, 1845. New York: Published by Townsend & Brooks, 1845. 33 x 18 cm. One of two known copies. After winning this trademark infringement lawsuit, the Scottish thread manufacturer J. & P. Coats, published the court’s decision as both an advertisement of its goods and a veiled warning to competitors.


Veridica descrizione, e ragguaglio distinto della Promulgazione delle colpe, e dell’abjura solenne, e della condanna di galera fulminata dal Santo Tribunale dell’Inquisizione di Brescia, contro Giuseppe Beccarelli da Vrago d’Olio, li 13. settembre 1710. In Brescia: Per Gio. Maria Rizzardi, con licenza de’ superiori, 1710. 52 x 37 cm. One of two known copies.

This broadside documents a trial by the Inquisition of a priest named Guiseppi Beccarelli, who confessed under torture to the heresy of quietism. The woodcut’s alphabetic key identifies all the participants, including the presiding officer, Cardinal Gianalberto Badoaro.

Sopra definitiva relazione di questa Regia Curia Pretoria … [Pavia, Italy: publisher not identified], 1763. 36 x 23 cm. The only known copy. Ambrogio Giuseppe Ferrara, a.k.a. Lumellino, was sentenced to death for a crime spree that included two murders, destruction of his victims’ corpses, attempted murder, kidnapping, trafficking in stolen goods, assault, possession of prohibited weapons, and organized crime. The illustration depicts Lumellino’s beheading, scheduled for Deceember 12, 1763 in Pavia. The broadside was published by a Catholic confraternity dedicated to caring for condemned criminals in their last moments.

Arese, Giovanni Benedetto Borromeo, 1679-1744. Essendo stato questa mattina dal senato eccellentissimo sentenziato il Co: Galleazzo Boselli Bergamsco ad essergli tagliata la testa sopra il Corfo di Porta Tosa. Milan, 1705. 31 x 18 cm. The only known copy. The broadside proclaims the death sentence of Galeazzo Boselli, for execution on December 22, 1705. The large woodcut depicts the beheading of John the Baptist, the patron saint of the confraternity that cared for condemned criminals in Milan.


Bergamo (Italy). Li rettori avviso. In Bergamo: Per li Fratelli Rossi stampatori camerali, 1766. 37 x 24 cm. The only known copy. The regulation attempts to control the spread of disease among livestock.

Bologna (Italy). Notificazione sopre I coloni, che ai santi prossimi mutano colonia: il Senato di Bologna. In Bologna : Nella stamperia camerale, 1796. 46 x 34 cm. The only known copy. The broadside sets out measures imposed to address cattle plague, which killed 19,000 head in Bologna in 1796.

Genoa (Italy). Prohibitione de coltelli. In Genoa : Per Gio. Maria Farroni, 1646. 42 x 30 cm. One of two known copies. The Republic of Genoa bans a specific type of dagger in this proclamation, illustrated in a woodcut, noting that it is designed solely for stabbing and not cutting.


Jurisprudentes prudentes jure vocantur, tam bene cum studeant provideantq[ue] sibi. Juristen und Advocaten mussn erweicht werdn mit Ducaten. Consten sie ungern helffen in noth, und gewint gar nichts die arm Rott. Germany?: Gedruckt im Jahr nach Christi Geburt, 1619. 39 x 33 cm. The only known copy.

This broadside takes aim at lawyers and their greed. The Latin verse at the top can be translated: “Lawyers are prudent, provident beside / for prudently they for themselves provide.” The lively illustration shows a parade of poor clients seeking the lawyer’s services. Of particular interest is the bags hanging from the walls, which were the lawyer’s filing system for documents.

The great riot: vox populi, vox dei: intense excitement in Hartford, troops called out! Hartford?, 1877. 37 x 24 cm. One of two known copies. This broadside lampoons the financial scandal involving the Charter Oak Insurance Company by depicting a “riot”: “All the Saloons ordered to be kept open until the excitement shall have been numbered among the things that were.” “Fire department had been ordered to wet down any and all incendiary speeches.”

O.K. OLL for Kleveland, no imprisonment for debt. Hartford?, 1844. 48 x 8 cm. The only known copy. The broadside announces a rally to support the reelection of Chauncey Fitch Cleveland as governor of Connecticut, who promised to abolish imprisonment for debt. The broadside includes John Greenleaf Whittier’s poem “The Prisoner for Debt.”

Democrat Salt River excursion! Incidents of the annual voyage to the old stamping ground. Vain attempts to get in the mayor’s office.–The democracy and the police Philadelphia, Tuesday, October 10, 1871. Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Post, 1871. 46 x 38 cm. One of two known copies. A satire on Philadelphia politics.

Fitzherbert, New boke of iustices of peace (1554)
April 28, 2020

If distance or the coronavirus shutdown prevented you from viewing our Spring 2020 exhibition, “Precedents So Scrawl’d and Blurr’d: Readers’ Marks in Law Books,” there is good news. The exhibition is now online, as part of the Yale University Library’s Online Exhibitions website.

The 39 volumes in the exhibition, spanning seven centuries and three continents, were selected for their research potential and for the insights they provide into the roles law books have played in people’s lives. The marks left by readers document the lived experience of the law, and remind us that law is above all a human endeavor. The exhibition is the latest in a series that examine law books as physical artifacts, and the relationships between their form and content.

The exhibition’s title comes from John Anstey’s verse satire of the legal profession, The Pleader’s Guide (1796): “Precedents so scrawl’d and blurr’d / I scarce could read one single word.”

– MIKE WIDENER, Rare Book Librarian

Sir Thomas Littleton, Les tenures du monsieur Littleton (London: Richard Tottel, 1583).

Gastaldi's treatise on quarantines
April 3, 2020

To mark the 12th anniversary of the Yale Law Library Rare Books Blog, I direct your attention to a book of ours that is, unfortunately, rather timely. The book is Girolamo Gastaldi’s Tractatus de avertenda et profliganda peste politico-legalis (Bologna, 1684), a massive folio of almost a thousand pages that is considered one of the most important early treatises on quarantines.

The book publishes the text of over 260 public health regulations (in Italian and Latin) for the city of Rome, covering not only quarantines but also topics such as architectural prevention measures, public notices, food markets, hospitals, prisons, travel restrictions, beggars, cemeteries, and the Jewish Ghetto of Rome. The book also includes an account of the plague which devastated Italy in 1656, and a medical commentary on the plague.

Cardinal Gastaldi (1616-1685) wrote from experience. As the commissioner of public health under Pope Alexander VII, he was in charge of Rome’s response to the 1656 plague epidemic. His efforts were considered a resounding success because only 4,500 died in Rome (about 8% of the population), compared to the 150,000 who died in Naples and 50,000 in Genoa, representing over half of their respective populations. As a result of his work, Gastaldi received the cardinal’s hat in 1673 and was named archbishop of Benevento in 1680.

Gastaldi’s treatise adds to our collection of early Italian statutes, but those who know me won’t be surprised to learn that I acquired the book as much for its illustrations as for its text. A few of the 47 engraved plates are shown below. There is a map of the Trastevere neighborhood of Rome, and a more detailed map of the area around St. Paul’s Outside the Walls (San Paolo fuori le Mura), one of Rome’s four Papal Basilicas and the largest church in Rome after St. Peter’s Basilica. Since it was “outside the walls” of the city, St. Paul’s was considered an appropriate site for the burial of plague victims.

Of special interest are the engravings of the several gates to the city of Rome, which were critical points for enforcing the quarantine. Some of them, like the Porta San Sebastiano, are still important landmarks in Rome, while others like the Porta Angelica were demolished long ago.

For a summary of the 1656 plague in Rome and Gastaldi’s efforts, see Pierina Ferrara, “Women in Times of Plague: Economic Conditions and and Social Change in 17th Century Rome,” in I Congresso Histórico Internacional - As Cidades na História: População (2012), volume 3, pages 373-385.

– MIKE WIDENER, Rare Book Librarian

Map of the Trastevere neighborhood, Rome, 1655
A map of the Trastevere neighborhood of Rome at the time of the 1656 plague epidemic, with north to the left. The gray area at the upper left is the Jewish Ghetto. See a high-resolution image in our Flickr site.

Map of St. Paul's Outside the Walls, Rome
The area around the Papal Basilica of St. Paul’s Outside the Walls (San Paolo fuori le Mura), with north at the bottom. The basilica encloses the tomb of St. Paul the Apostle. The mass graves for plague victims are marked “C” and “F”. See a high-resolution image in our Flickr site.

Porta San Sebastiano, Rome, 1655
The 1700-year old Porta San Sebastiano, sitting astride the Appian Way, was the principal gateway into the city of Rome for centuries. Today it is the largest and best-preserved gate in the Aurelian Walls.

Porta Angelica, Rome, 1655
The Porta Angelica, built in the 1560s, was once a principal entry point for pilgrims. Located just outside the northeast walls of the Vatican, it was demolished in 1888.

Gastaldi, Tractatus de avertenda et profliganda peste politico-legalis, 1684
Girolamo Gastaldi, Tractatus de avertenda et profliganda peste politico-legalis (Bologna: Manolessi, 1684).

Trial by Media: The Queen Caroline Affair
March 25, 2020

Trial by Media: The Queen Caroline Affair,” the joint exhibition of the Lewis Walpole Library and the Lillian Goldman Law Library’s Rare Book Collection, is now available online in the Yale University Library Online Exhibitions site. The colorful exhibition documents the media frenzy provoked two centuries ago by the attempt of King George IV of England to divorce his consort Queen Caroline on the grounds of adultery.

Drawing on the Lewis Walpole Library’s strengths in graphic satire and the Law Library’s collections of trial accounts and illustrated legal texts, “Trial by Media” examines the role of print media in documenting the Queen Caroline affair and shaping public perceptions. The items range from mocking caricatures to political screeds and sober, journalistic accounts. Today these sources serve as a lens for studying gender roles, class divisions, publishing, political satire, and British politics.

In addition to digital text and images of the Fall 2019 exhibition, the digital version includes a collection of ten scholarly essays, many of which were presented at an October 4, 2019 conference in the Yale Law School. There is also a bibliography of works on the Queen Caroline Affair.

A special attraction of the online exhibit is a digital reproduction of the Humphrey Shop Album, created by prominent London satiric print publisher George Humphrey (1773?-1831?) to market prints to his clients. Virtually all of its 131 hand-colored prints are contemporary satires of the Queen Caroline scandal by artists such as George Cruikshank, Robert Cruikshank, and Theodore Lane. The survival of this shop album in its original binding is itself extraordinary, as most such albums have been broken up and sold as individual prints by later dealers. The album is one of the treasures of the Lewis Walpole Library.

“Trial by Media: The Queen Caroline Affair” was co-curated by Cynthia Roman, Curator of Prints, Drawings, and Paintings at the Lewis Walpole Library, and Mike Widener, Rare Book Librarian at the Lillian Goldman Law Library. The online exhibition was designed by Kristen McDonald of the Lewis Walpole Library.

The political queen that Jack loves: with thirteen cuts (London: Printed and published by Roach & Co., 1820). Illustrations by George Cruikshank. Rare Book Collection, Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School.

Detail from Justinian's Institutes (Venice, 1476)
March 4, 2020

Books are the lawyer’s tools and the law student’s laboratory, and nothing brings this home better than the marks that they leave in their books. Over 30 such annotated and inscribed books from the Lillian Goldman Law Library are on display in “Precedents So Scrawl’d and Blurr’d: Readers’ Marks in Law Books,” the Spring 2020 exhibition from the library’s Rare Book Collection.

Exhibition curator Mike Widener, the Law Library’s rare book librarian, selected items that offer both research potential and insights into the roles that law books have played in people’s lives. The marks left by readers document the lived experience of the law, and remind us that law is above all a human endeavor.

The exhibition’s title comes from John Anstey’s verse satire of the legal profession, The Pleader’s Guide (1796): “Precedents so scrawl’d and blurr’d / I scarce could read one single word.”

Many of the volumes illustrate the work of lawyers, law students, law professors, and authors throughout the centuries. Doodles suggest the writers taking a break from dreary legal studies. Scraps of poetry can be sources for literary scholars. Readers also used their books to record events, ranging from a drunken outburst in the New Jersey assembly to a famous naval battle of the War of 1812 and the beheading of Henry VIII’s fifth queen.

These books represent a small fraction of the annotated books in the Yale Law Library’s rare book collection. They demonstrate the value of collecting these artifacts, and constitute the Law Library’s invitation to explore them further.

“Precedents So Scrawl’d and Blurr’d” is the latest in a series of exhibitions that examine law books as physical artifacts, and the relationships between their forms and content. It is on display March 2 to June 17, 2020, in the Rare Book Exhibition Gallery of the Lillian Goldman Law Library, located on Level L2 of the Yale Law School (127 Wall Street, New Haven CT). The exhibition is open to the general public 10am-6pm daily, and open to Yale affiliates until 10pm.

For more information, contact Mike Widener, Rare Book Librarian, phone (203) 432-4494 and email <mike.widener@yale.edu>.

A true and perfect relation of the whole proceedings against the late most barbarous traitors (London, 1606)

This book documents the trial of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators. An early owner wrote his review on the flyleaf:

This is a relation (as the Title Page calls it) and not a Tryal, for no Witnesses are produced in it — It would have been far more Satisfactory to the Reader; if the Evidence had been inserted in the manner it is [in] the State Tryals; where you have the very Words of the Witnesses, and the Cross-Examinations of them by the Prisoners. But here you have little more than the Inditements, & the Harangues of the Lords Commissioners & the Attorney General.

Dr. Cowel in his Interpreter under the word Heyreloom calls this Speech a Divine Speech.

Parte presa nell'eccellentiss. Senato, 1620, adì 9 aprile, in materia che si possi condennar alla Galea anco per manco tempo de disdotto mesi (Venice, 1620)
October 29, 2019

For the second year in a row, a publication of our Rare Book Collection has earned an award from the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL). The exhibition catalogue for our Fall 2016 exhibition, Representing the Law in the Most Serene Republic: Images of Authority from Renaissance Venice, is the winner of the 2019 Publication Award from AALL’s Academic Law Libraries Special Interest Section. The award is bestowed annually to recognize a “significant contribution to scholarly legal literature.”

The exhibition, and its catalogue, were co-authored by Christopher W. Platts and myself. Platts is presently Adjunct Assistant Professor of Art at Vassar College, and was a Ph.D. student in History of Art here at Yale when the exhibition appeared. The idea for the exhibition was Christopher’s, as was the bulk of the writing, research, and selection of items.

The catalogue explores how the Venetian Republic – a prosperous and powerful state in early modern Europe – cultivated a mythical image of stability, liberty, and beauty. Focusing primarily on the outstanding holdings of Italian law books in the Yale Law Library’s Rare Book Collection, the publication presents 25 objects of remarkable splendor and historical significance. These include illuminated manuscripts, illustrated books, prints, drawings, coins, and medals, nearly a dozen of which were borrowed from other Yale art and library collections.

The catalogue also introduces the most significant offices and symbols of the Venetian state, and explains how laws were crafted, debated, publicized, and flouted. The protagonists of the stories recounted herein are the doge (duke) and highest magistrates of Venice, the governors appointed to rule the Republic’s far-flung territories, the lawmakers in the Senate, and the lawbreakers consigned to prison or to the galleys – all of them illustrated in finely executed representations in various media.

A digital version of the print catalogue is available in the Law Library’s Yale Law School legal Scholarship Repository:

The previous award from AALL was the 2018 Joseph L. Andrews Legal Literature Award for Law’s Picture Books: The Yale Law Library Collection (Michael Widener & Mark S. Weiner, eds.; Clark, NJ: Talbot Publishing, 2017).

– MIKE WIDENER, Rare Book Librarian

Institutio in potestatem civitatis Bergomi data Laurentii Venerio ab Andrea Griti duce Venetiarum. 1524.

Institutio in potestatem civitatis Bergomi data Laurentii Venerio ab Andrea Griti duce Venetiarum. 1524. Manuscript on parchment. Rare Book Collection, Lillian Goldman Law Library.


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