Research Management and Citation

Before beginning your research, you will want to select at least one bibliographic tool that will help you organize your research and citations and format your papers and bibliography.   For additional training, please visit the University Library’s Research Instruction Program calendar of events here.  If you are a law student interested in case management for a clinic or class, you may also want to explore CaseMap.


  • Mendeley is a free tool that generates citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, and LaTeX.  Open PDFs and capture your thoughts through sticky notes and highlights. 
  • Import and organize PDFs from your computer, EndNote™, Papers or Zotero.
  • Online tutorials here.
  • More side-by-side comparisons here.


  • Zotero is a free, open access extension that runs in the Firefox browser. 
  • Online tutorials here.
  • Zotero combines the citation management features of programs such as Refworks and Endnote with a number of other features helpful to researchers, including:
    • the ability to save and annotate webpages and attachments in your Zotero account
    • indexes and organizes your research similar to an iTunes library of files
    • Automatic citation formatting including bluebook
    • ability to sync and share with other systems


  • Evernote is a free, open access browser extension
  • Captures web sites and clip pages directly from your browser.  Everything you capture is automatically processed, indexed, and made searchable. If you like, you can add tags or organize notes into different electronic notebooks.
  • Ability to sync and share with other systems.

RefWorks & EndNote Web

  • RefWorks is a subscription and web-based citation management tool that Yale affiliates can use free-of-charge.  Click here for more details about RefWorks including features and how to create an account
  • EndNote Web is a subscription and web-based citation management tool that Yale affiliates can use free-of-charge.  EndNote X7 is brought to you by the Yale University Library and Yale ITS. You can download from the Yale ITS software library.  Click here for more details about EndNote Web including features and how to create an account EndNote.

Compare Features


EndNote Web & RefWorks




Free; open-source

No charge for Yale community.

You must login from a computer connected to the Yale network at least once every three months to maintain your account.

Available by subscription after you leave Yale.

Free; open-source

Free; open-source Firefox 2.0 extension.

Download Firefox then download Zotero.


Web-based, works on PC and Mac.



Desktop software as Firefox extension that lives in the browser.

Access and Mobile device use

You can download for free from here.

Login from your smart phone here.

Register/access your account at:

Endnote:download from Yale Software Library:


Access your database of references from any Web-connected source.  RefMobile for mobile and smart phones, PDA’s

You must be online in order to add/edit your references and format a bibliography.

You can download for free from here.

Sync with your smart phone here.

Download Zotero at

Once you have created your own account, you may access and to some extent manipulate your collection online from anywhere including a smart  phone.

User Group

People who want to organize references, images, and/or web pages. People who want to add research notes to references.

People who want to organize references and use them to format bibliographies. People who want to add research notes to references. Students and other researchers who want basic functionality, but do not require advanced functionality and customizability.

People who want to organize references and share them with a larger community

People who want to format bibliographies, organize references, save webpages and attachments, annotate saved web documents, and tag items for future retrieval. People who want an open-source tool they can access after leaving Yale.

Ease of Use

Easy to use.

Easy to use.

Refworks has many online user guides and demos.

Easy to use.

Easy to use. Many online user guides and demos.


You can specify individuals that are permitted to view, and in some cases modify, your notebooks.

Endnote: Ability to share references in read-only format with others who have EndNote Web accounts.

Refworks: Ability to create and share databases and share specific collections of references. You can share references with people who do not have RefWorks accounts.

Group members can see papers and folders that you add to the group on their newsfeed.  Keep up-to-date with your collaboration with real time updates. More information here

Ability to create, share and synchronize library with other users by creating your own account

Compatibility with Yale Databases


Not automatic with LexisNexis Lawschool or Westlaw.

Direct export of references to EndNote reference collection ONLY from databases on Web of Knowledge.

Direct export references from many databases to RefWorks reference collection.

Ability to search some online databases, like Orbis, Morris, and PubMed, from within EndNote and copy references to your reference collection.

Ability to save results from many databases as text files and import into your reference collection.

The web importer allows you to import papers, web pages, and other documents into your library from search engines and academic databases.

Not automatic with LexisNexis Lawschool or Westlaw - however you can save documents and references to your account.

Zotero senses when you are looking at an item and shows an icon for it in the Firefox location bar. Click on the icon to add the item to your Zotero references. So it works on all webpages and catalogs and many subscription databases, including some unique ones like Factiva, HeinOnline and LexisNexis Academic.

Link to Full Text and Document Storage

You can link references in your Evernote account to web pages


Click the “Yale Links” button beside each reference to locate full text if available. 

Includes hot links to Web resources.  Does not save a copy of the document, only the reference and link.

Links references in your RefWorks database to PDF files and documents on your computer. They will be available from anywhere you access RefWorks.

Drag any PDF directly into Mendeley from your desktop or folders which you can then instant annotate, cite and highlight. 

Imports books, articles, patents, and webpages and you can store pdfs, web screenshots, files, and images in records. **Make sure that the record is complete after import (some databases are not fully compatible).

Word Processing Software


Works with Word

Works with: Word, 


and BibTeX

Works with Word, Open Office, and with Google Docs.

Output Styles


Endnote: popular styles and formats, including Bluebook.

Refworks: many popular styles and formats, with limited use of Bluebook.

Styles may not be altered.

Popular styles and formats, including Bluebook.

Some popular styles and formats, including a Bluebook template that can be manipulated.

Updated:  December 2016